The diaphragm technique is used in the civil engineering field to perform structural and hydraulic works, with a temporary or permanent function.
In the field of diaphragms the distinction can be made:
1) foundation diaphragms
2) diaphragms to protect the excavations in the frieze of buildings, with self-sustaining structure or constrained with tie rods or struts;
3) plastic diaphragms, also called waterproof diaphragms.
The concrete diaphragms are made by using hydraulic drills equipped with hydraulic or rope-type grab buckets. The excavation is carried out starting from the countryside level according to correctly delimited alignments through the formation of appropriate guide ropes in c.a. (called KOREE). The sustenance of the excavation walls is guaranteed through the use of bentonite or polymeric sludges. Inside the excavation the pre-assembled iron reinforcement cages are then introduced and then follows the jet of the panels by means of suitable pipes from the bottom of the excavation, so as to avoid any segregation of the inert.